THE BIBLE AND THE TROUBLES OF THE FIRST SON IN BENIN TRADITION
The challenge of the first son in Benin Tradition and the Bible are compared in this thesis. Most people think that all children, even the first son, are gifts from the All-Powerful God. The arrival of the first son is usually joyful. The overall goal of this study is to conduct a comparative study of the challenges of the first son in Benin Tradition and the Bible with a view to offering solutions to the challenges confronting the former. To achieve the set objectives of the thesis, the multi-dimensional research approach was utilized. Incidentally, these first sons suddenly become the greatest anxiety for most families in Edo Land.
This comprises the phenomenological, historical, analytical, evaluative, and comparative techniques. The Theory of Humanism developed by Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers served as the foundation for this study’s theoretical framework. At the conclusion of this study, the following conclusions were drawn: most people believe that all children, including the first son, are gifts from the Almighty God, the Supreme Being; that the first son is typically given a prominent role in Benin tradition and the Bible; that most first sons experience difficulties in fulfilling their destiny; that the first son becomes the target of the evil forces because he is the first child of the parents; and that the first son is typically given a prominent place in Benin tradition and the Bible.
be possible, but they can be minimized via the use of Benin tradition, biblical counseling, and prayers. The thesis included suggestions for easing the pressure or difficulties that the first son, parents, other siblings, and society have long been dealing with.
TEXT OF THE CHAPTER
Title page – – – – – – – I
Certification – – – – – – – – ii
Dedication – – – – – – – iii
Acknowledgements – – – – – – – – iv
Abstract – – – – – – – – v
Table of Contents – – – – – – vi
1.0 INTRODUCTION – – – – – – 1
1.1 Background of the Study – – – – – 1
1.2 Problem Statement: 2
1.3 Study Objectives – – – – – – 2
1.4 Research Techniques – – – – – – – 3
1.5 Justification for the Study – – – – – –
1.6 Study’s Purpose – – – – – – – 6
1.7 Work Organization – – – – – – 6
2.0 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE – – – – – – 7
2.1 The First Sonin Edo Tradition – – – – – 7
3.0 FROM EDO’S POINT OF VIEW, THE FIRST SON – – – – 18
3.1 A Brief History of the Edo People – – – – – 18
The value of children in Benin tradition is discussed in section 3.2.
3.3 First Son in Benin Tradition – – – – – 25
Challenges Facing the First Son in Benin Tradition, Section 3.4 – – – 27
The Status of the First Son in Ancestral Worship and Burial Rituals – 38
3.6 The Practice of Ukhure, Sorcery, and Witchcraft Among the Benin People – 51
4.0 THE FIRST SON: A BIBLICAL OVERVIEW – – – – 55
4.1 The First Man in the Bible – – – – – 55
Children play an important role in the Bible, according to verse 4.2, which is found on page 56.
4.3 The First Son in the Old Testament – – – – 57
4.4 The First Son in the New Testament – – – – 59
The difficulties faced by the first son in the Bible are listed in section 4.5, which is found on page 60.
4.6 A Comparison of the First Son in Benin Tradition and the Bible
– – – – – – – – – – 62
5.0 ANALYSIS, REPORT, FINDINGS, AND CONTRIBUTIONS TO
APPLICATION OF KNOWLEDGE, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS 65
5.1 Evaluation – – – – – – – 65
5.2 Findings – – – – – – – 70
5.3 Knowledge Contributions – – – – – 70
5.4 Summary/Conclusion – – – – – – 71
5.5 Recommendations – – – – – – 72
74 Works Cited
Appendix I: 76
Appendix II – – – – – – – – 78
Introduction in Chapter One, Version 1.0
1.1 The Study’s Background
Children are highly significant in African society in general and among the Edo people in particular. Having a firstborn child, whether a boy or a girl, brings a family great delight. According to NwaoruEmmanuel, every couple in Benin prays to God for children to be born into their union. Mothers admire them because they dispel the stigma of barrenness, and fathers cherish them because they demonstrate their manhood. A Benin man marries with the intention of expanding his community, especially his family, or of becoming “fruitful and multiply and fill the world” (75).
Even for the Israelites, having children was a blessing, but having no offspring is a sign of a curse. Sarah, desperate to have children, begged her husband urgently to see her slave girl. Others, such Rachel and Hannah, prayed to God fervently for children, and He granted their requests. Hannah expressed her gratitude to God with a wonderful song (75).
According to Thomas Ebhomielen, a man is not considered complete until he has produced offspring who will succeed him after his death. He also claims that the attention given to expectant mothers demonstrates how highly the Esan people regard children, and that the baby’s ceremonial washing and naming ritual are crucial after delivery.
According to John Mbiti, many African communities hold that God sent instructions on how to get married and have children from the very beginning of human life (104). Children’s names like Omosukpon, Omoariagbon, and Omosefe, which mean “children are greater than clothes,” and “children are the reason you are on earth,” might be used to infer this (Children are greater than wealth).
1.2 Definition of the Issue
Intriguingly, the majority of families in Edoland find that their firstborn children, who usually bring the family tremendous joy and excitement at birth, now cause them the most worry. The problems of the first son in Benin tradition and the Bible are compared in this essay. Their problems include late marriage, early mortality, poverty, infertility, mental disease, and late destiny fulfillment. This is attributed to a variety of factors, including inheritance disputes, polygamy and racial discrimination, jealously and jealousy of other family members, an excessive focus on inheritance, sloth on their side, and evil witches, wizards, or sorcerers.
The survey also found that one of the biggest obstacles facing the first sons is ancestral reverence. They serve as a liaison between the living and the ancestors. It is simple to accuse them of using the ancestor worship sign known as Ukhure to harm other family members’ children rather than utilizing it to pray for their protection, provision, and well-being.
Many people have examined the situation of the first son from the heir-ship/inheritance perspective as well as the advantages and privileges associated with holding the position of the first son, but these perspectives haven’t really proffered solutions to the anxiety or challenges that befall the first son, their parents, other siblings, and society. This is what this study’s aim is. The theoretical foundation of humanism developed by Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers served as the basis for this investigation.
1.3 The Study’s Objectives
The main goal of this research is to compare the problems with the first son in the Bible and Benin Tradition in order to suggest remedies for the problems the former faces.
The following are the study’s particular goals:
investigate the roots of the first son’s problems in Benin tradition and the Bible;
decide how the first son can handle obstacles in the Bible and Benin tradition;
Describe the functions of the parents and other family members and how they respond to the issues associated with the first son in Benin tradition and the Bible;
examine the origins of the first son’s bond with his forefathers.
suggest strategies based on Benin custom, biblical counseling, and prayers to lessen magical powers’ ability to manipulate the first son’s fate.
1.4 Research Techniques
The multidimensional approach to the study of religion is the research methodology used. It incorporates phenomenological, historical, analytical, evaluative, and comparative techniques. The analytical approach will assist us in being methodical, logical, and critical. From a historical viewpoint, we will be able to understand the genesis of the first son in Benin tradition and the Bible. The evaluative approach aims to conduct a critique of the topic. With people in Benin who are deeply rooted in the traditions of, the Phenomenological approach was used to conduct oral interviews with
Benin. The main and secondary sources helped to support all of this. Oral interviews are the primary source, and internet and library resources are the secondary sources. The strategies mentioned above provided enough assistance in achieving the desired results.
The humanism theory of Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow served as the foundation for this study’s theoretical framework. A psychological viewpoint known as humanism places a strong emphasis on studying the complete person. It examines human behavior not just from the perspective of the observer but also from the perspective of the individual behaving. Phenomenological approach is a humanistic method. The basic tenets of humanistic psychology are that humans have free choice, phenomenology is essential, and that not all behavior is predetermined. Personal agency describes the decisions we make in life, the directions we choose, and the results. Unusual behavior is a sign of inconsistency and low self-worth (e.g. depression). They will benefit from motivation and education. Then another presumption is added: that humans are fundamentally decent and have a natural desire to improve both their own lives and the world around them. The humanistic perspective places a strong emphasis on each person’s intrinsic worth, the significance of human values, and the creative and active character of people. The approach is upbeat and emphasizes the wonderful human potential to overcome difficulty, suffering, and hopelessness. Personal development and life fulfillment were seen by Maslow and Rogers as fundamental human goals. This implies that everyone aspires to develop psychologically and constantly better themselves in various ways. The phrase “self-actualization” has been used to describe this and
discusses psychological development, fulfillment, and life pleasure. They claimed that talking with someone, listening to their stories, and being open to their emotions is the only way to truly understand someone. This research’s methodology is based on it.
Many interviews with first sons, their siblings, parents, and other individuals in Benin were conducted. Additionally, according to the demonological school of criminology, “crimes are committed by individuals under the power of demons or other evil forces.” Consequently, some first sons who use the Ukhure (a symbol of ancestor worship) may do something bad. others in the family suffer under a demon’s control and hardship. The fate of the first boys might also be manipulated by some family members who are under demonic sway. However, according to Maslow and Rogers, the first sons can achieve self-actualization if they are left alone. Humanistic philosophy holds that reaching one’s full potential might involve engaging in creative endeavors, seeking spiritual enlightenment, pursuing knowledge, or having a desire to help others. So, if the first son lived according to the aforementioned values, it would improve his position and personality.
Man, according to Solomon Oladimeji, is the best of all of God’s creatures. The most creative being ever created, man was intended to be. According to him, to be completely human is to be able to harmonize God’s creative, spiritual, intellectual, communicative, relational, moral, and purposeful qualities (107). This is consistent with Abraham Maslow’s self-actualization hypothesis. According to God’s design, man should live with the awareness that he is God’s greatest creation and that, at the end of time, he will be honored alongside God. God made man to be a logical person as well. He bestowed to him human dignity.
who is able to take the lead and manage his own actions. He was kindly endowed with the capacity for reasoned decision-making. God intended for man to be placed in charge of his own decisions so that he may voluntarily seek out his creator and achieve his complete and happy perfection by clinging to him (107). This held true for the first son as well, who was a rational being created by God.
He has been given the respect due to someone who can take the initiative and manage his own actions. The first son will reach his full and glorious perfection if he remains faithful to his creator. When the first sons chose the path of sin, they must also live with the repercussions of their decisions, which have been linked to the evil deeds of witches, wizards, and sorcerers.
1.5 The Study’s Justification
Children are incredibly important to the people of Benin and other cultures throughout the world, which makes this study essential. It is also mentioned in the start of creation in the bible. Children often provide the family and society as a whole a lot of happiness, especially the firstborn. These newborn children, who usually bring the family enormous delight, overnight become a cause of stress and misery. The research provided understanding of the difficulties associated with the first son in Benin tradition and the Bible.
The first son frequently has difficulties like: late fulfillment of destiny, untimely death, mental illness, late marriage, inheritance issue, etc. The main information source for this study effort was interviews because many writers mainly focused on the relevance of children and the difficulty with first son inheritance.
1.6 The Study’s Purpose
The first son in Benin tradition and a few chosen individuals in the Bible are the main topics of this thesis. In order to investigate the nature, reasons, and potential remedies for the experiences, the research addresses the difficulties the first son in Benin is experiencing and contrasts them with those of a few biblical characters. The thesis also offers suggestions that might aid in easing the strain or difficulties that the first son, parents, other siblings, and society have long endured.
1.7 The way the job is organized
Five chapters make up the research project, which allows for a more organized approach to the job. Introduction in general is covered in Chapter 1. While chapter three analyzes the first son from the standpoint of Edo, chapter two deals with a study of the literature. First son is the subject of chapter four’s biblical study and comparison. The overview, contributions to knowledge, results, conclusion, and suggestions resulting from the research are all included in chapter five.