Theories of Learning in Education

Theories of Learning in Education
Theories of Learning in Education

What exactly are educational learning theories, and how can we apply them to the way we teach? How can we know which are still relevant and which will be useful for our classes when there are so many options available?

The three main schemas for learning theories are constructivism, cognitivism, and behaviorism. In this essay, the 15 most important learning theories—from Vygotsky to Piaget and Bloom to Maslow and Bruner—are broken down and explained.

navigating treacle by swimming!

When you are attempting to filter through and make sense of the voluminous collection of learning theories at your disposal, it feels like that.

I’m paraphrasing here because my knowledge of ancient Greek isn’t very excellent, but the philosopher Plato first considered this issue in ancient Greece. He asked, “How does one learn something new if the subject itself is new to them?”

Since Plato, many theorists have emerged, all with their different take on how students learn. Learning theories are a set of principles that explain how best a student can acquire, retain and recall new information.

In this complete summary, we will look at the work of the following learning theorists.

Despite the fact there are so many educational theorists, there are three labels that they all fall under. Behaviorism, Cognitivism and Constructivism.

As opposed to behaviorism, which focuses on how pupils simply react to stimuli, cognitivism emphasizes how students process the information they are given.

Although there is still evidence of behavior change, it is due to thinking and information processing.

Wolfgang Kohler applied Gestalt psychology to the development of cognitive ideas in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century. Gestalt essentially translates to something being organized in a way that is seen as greater than the sum of its parts in English.

The cognitive load theory, schema theory, dual coding theory, and retrieval practice are just a few of the numerous evidence-based education theories that cognitivism has inspired.

According to cognitivism theory, learning happens when a pupil reorganizes information by coming up with new explanations or changing existing ones.

Instead of only being seen as a change in behavior, this is perceived as a change in knowledge and is retained in memory. The majority of cognitive learning theories are credited to Jean Piaget.

Teaching strategies that incorporate cognitivism in the classroom include conversations, problem-solving, and connecting ideas to real-world situations and examples.

Constructivism is founded on the idea that we create new knowledge based on our own experiences and prior knowledge. As a result, each learner’s experience with learning is different. Students modify their conceptual frameworks by either considering earlier theories or clearing up misconceptions.

Constructivist teaching methods work best when students have a foundation of past knowledge. Constructivism is best demonstrated through Bruner’s spiral curriculum (see example below).

Since results cannot always be predicted as students build their own knowledge bases, the teacher should check for and correct any misunderstandings that may have occurred. Constructivism may not be the best theory to apply when predictable results are needed.

Problem-based learning, research and creative projects, and group collaborations are a few classroom constructivism examples.
The Theory of Cognitive Development by Piaget
A fascinating figure in psychology is Piaget. His approach to learning is fundamentally different from many others’ in the following ways:

First, he only discusses children; second, he discusses development rather than learning per se; and third, it is a stage theory rather than a theory of linear advancement. What is he talking about, then?

There are some fundamental concepts to understand as well as various stages. The main concepts are:
Schemas: The knowledge’s fundamental units.
Adaptation techniques: These enable the changeover between stages. Equilibrium, Assimilation, and Accommodation are what he named these.

Sensorimotor, Preoperational, Concrete Operational, and Formal Operational are the stages of cognitive development.
So let’s see how it works. Schemas of knowledge about the world are formed in children. These are groups of related thoughts about things in the real world that the youngster can use to react appropriately.

A child’s working schema is in an equilibrium state when it can adequately explain how they view the world.

Assimilation occurs when the present schema is unable to adequately describe what is happening and needs to be changed, while accommodation occurs when the child uses the schema to deal with a new thing or circumstance.

As soon as it is modified, equilibrium is restored, and life moves on. As a result, learning involves a continuous cycle of assimilation, accommodation, equilibrium, and so forth.

The following are the 4 Stages of Cognitive Development, which are categorized according to age:

Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Stages
The Sensorimotor Stage lasts from birth to two years, during which time the kid learns fundamental Schemas and the concept of Object Permanence (the notion that something exists even if you can’t see it).

The Preoperational Stage lasts from two to seven years, during which time the kid gains additional schema and the ability to think symbolically (the notion that one item, such words or objects, can stand in for another). Children still have difficulty with Theory of Mind (Empathy) at this point and find it difficult to comprehend other people’s perspectives.

Between the ages of 7 and 11, children begin to solve problems mentally rather than physically in the real world during the Concrete Operational Stage. Additionally, they learn to conserve, which is the understanding that even when something appears different, its quantity remains the same.

The Formal Operational Stage, which lasts from 11 years of age till adulthood, is where abstract reasoning, logic, and cool skills like hypothesis testing develop.

Piaget asserts that the entire process is dynamic and necessitates the rediscovery and reconstruction of knowledge throughout the course of the Stages.

Knowing a child’s Stage helps determine what should be offered to them depending on what they can and cannot perform at that Stage.

John Sweller, who created the excellent Cognitive Load Theory, and John Flavell’s work on metacognition are only two examples of the brilliant work that Piaget’s work on cognitivism has inspired.

The Learning Theory of Vygotsky
In contrast to Piaget, Vygotsky disagrees with the notion that development comes before learning.

Instead, he contends that social learning is a crucial component of cognitive development and that culture, rather than a particular developmental stage, is what underlies cognitive development. Because of this, he contends that learning is not a universal process governed by the kinds of structures and processes proposed by Piaget, but rather differs between cultures.
proximal development zone

He makes a big deal out of the idea that children and those they are learning from co-construct knowledge in the Zone of Proximal Development. As a result, how and what youngsters think has a huge impact on the social setting in which they learn.

They have different perspectives on language as well. While Vygotsky believed that thought and language become intertwined at about 3 years old and function as a sort of internal dialogue for understanding the world, Piaget believed that thought drives language.

And from where do they obtain that? Of course, their social milieu provides all the verbal and cognitive abilities needed to comprehend the universe.

By “Elementary Mental Functions,” Vygotsky refers to the fundamental cognitive functions of attention, sensation, perception, and memory.

Children sort of refine them utilizing whatever their culture offers by using those fundamental tools in interactions with their sociocultural environment. Western cultures, for instance, prefer to utilize note-taking, mind-maps, or mnemonics to help with memory, whereas other cultures might use various techniques, such as storytelling.

This is a good method to characterize a cultural diversity in learning.

The concepts of scaffolding, the zone of proximal development (ZPD), and the more knowledgeable other (MKO) are fundamental to this learning paradigm. Here’s how it all functions:

Greater Expertise Other

The MKO can—but need not—be someone with actual knowledge superior to the youngster. In the ZPD, the child and the MKO cooperate to complete the learning task that the child is unable to complete on their own.

The ZPD expands as the child grows because they are able to perform more on their own. This process of increasing the ZPD is known as scaffolding.

The Vygotsky Scaffold
It is the MKO’s responsibility to know where that scaffold should be placed so that the child can work independently AND participate in group learning.

Language is central to all of this, according to Vygotsky, because it is the main way by which the MKO and the kid communicate ideas and because internalizing it is incredibly effective at establishing knowledge of the outside world.

Speech that is internalized develops into Private Speech (the child’s “inner voice”) and is different from Social Speech, which takes place between individuals.
Social speech eventually transforms into private speech, and presto! Because the child is now working together with themselves, that is learning!

The conclusion is that the child will have access to more tools in the ZPD and will internalize more social speech as private speech the more diverse their sociocultural milieu is. Therefore, it should be obvious that the learning environment and interactions are crucial.

The Principles of Instruction by Rosenshine include scaffolding as a crucial component.

Learning Domains According to Bloom
Cognitive, emotional, and psycho-motor learning domains were first postulated by American educational psychologist Benjamin Bloom in 1956. On the three domains, Bloom collaborated with David Krathwohl and Anne Harrow from the 1950s to the 1970s.
Bloom’s Taxonomy’s Cognitive Domain
This was the first domain to be put forth in 1956, and it focuses on the notion that cognition-related objectives may be broken down into subobjectives and graded in terms of their level of cognitive complexity.

This system of ranking categories is known as Bloom’s taxonomy. Following are the original subdivisions (knowledge is at the lowest level and evaluation is the cognitively trickiest):

Knowledge Understanding Application

Analysis Synthesis Evaluation
However, Bloom’s original partner David Krathwohl and his colleague Lorin Anderson (Anderson was a former student of Bloom’s) significantly revised the subdivisions in 2000–2001.

Highlights of this modification include changing the subdivision names from nouns to verbs, which makes them simpler to utilize when developing curricula and lessons.

The top two subdivisions were changed in sequence, which was the other significant modification. The revised taxonomy is listed below:

. Produce

. Assess

. Analyze

. Apply

. Comprehend and

. Recall

The Emotional Domain
The affective domain, often known as the “feeling domain,” deals with feelings and emotions and categorizes objectives into several levels of hierarchy. In 1964, Krathwohl and Bloom put forth the idea.

Since feelings and emotions have little to do with math and science, the affective domain is typically not used when planning in those fields. However, whenever possible, the affective domain must be included by educators of the arts and languages.

Receiving” is at the bottom of the list of ranking domain subcategories, and “characterization” is at the top. Here is the complete list of rankings:

Receiving. recognizing an external input (feeling, detecting, or experiencing it).
Responding. responding to external stimuli (such as enjoyment, contribution, and satisfaction)
Valuing. referring to the pupil’s perception of value or adoption of it (expressing preference or respect).

Organization. the process of thinking and planning values (to evaluate, define, and integrate.)
Characterization. having the capacity to live out their values. (Examine, draw a decision, and pass judgment).
Behavioral Motor Domain

The goals that are exclusive to reflex actions, interpretive movements, and discrete physical activities are referred to as being in the psychomotor domain.

It’s a widespread misperception that psycho-motor tasks, like dissecting a heart and then sketching it, fall within the category of physical aims that assist cognitive development.

Although these are physical (kinesthetic) actions, rather than psycho-motor learning, they serve as a vector for cognitive learning.

When we learn to move our bodies in dance or gymnastics, for example, we are engaging in psychomotor learning, which is the study of how our bodies and senses interact with the environment.

In the psycho-motor realm, Anita Harrow divided learning into various categories, ranging from reflexive learning to more complicated learning that calls for exact control.

reflex actions. These are the movements that humans have from birth or start to exhibit during puberty. They are automatic, meaning we don’t have to consciously think about them to do things like breathe, open and close our pupils, or shudder when it’s cold.
moves that are fundamental. These are the fundamental motions—running, leaping, walking, etc.—that frequently make up more complicated actions, like participating in a sport.

Perception skills. This group of skills includes those that enable us to see the environment and plan our movements so that we can interact with it. They consist of touch, auditory, and visual motions.
physical prowess. These skills include those related to power, stamina, agility, flexibility, and other traits.
adroit moves. In this section, goals are set for actions such as twisting the body while high diving or trampolining, dancing, or playing an instrument (such as placing fingers on guitar strings to generate the right note). We sometimes refer to these motions as having “muscle memory” in layman’s terms.

discussion-free communication. Non-discursive communication, which is communicating without writing, relates to bodily gestures, posture, and facial expressions.
Conditions of Learning by Gagné
Richard Mills American educational psychologist Gagné wrote “The Conditions of Learning” in 1965. In it, he talks about the analysis of learning objectives and how various classes of objectives call for distinct teaching strategies.

These three domains—cognitive, affective, and psycho-motor—are often referred to as his five conditions of learning.

5 Conditions of Learning outlined by Gagné
Verbal data (domain of cognition)
Knowledge of the mind (cognitive area)
(Cognitive domain) Cognitive methods
Physical and psychological motor abilities
(Affective domain) Attitudes

Gagné’s Nine Learning Levels
Gagné believed that learning would occur when pupils advanced through nine stages of learning and that any teaching session should comprise a series of events through all nine levels in order to fulfill his five requirements of learning. The theory was that by triggering the five prerequisites for learning, the nine levels of learning would facilitate learning.

attract focus.
Inform the class of the goal.
encourage the retention of earlier knowledge.
Give the information.
Provide advice about learning.
Encourage practice and performance.
Provide criticism.
Determine performance.
Increase transfer to the job and retention.

Advantages of Gagné Theory
Gagné’s nine levels of learning offer a framework that teachers can use to construct classes and subjects when combined with Bloom’s taxonomy. Gagné provides a scaffold on which to design your class, while Bloom gives the opportunity to set objectives that are differentiated.

The Spiral Curriculum by Jerome Bruner (1960)

The spiral curriculum is based on cognitive learning theorist Jerome Bruner’s belief that “any subject can be taught in some intellectually honest form to any child at any stage of development.”

In other words, he was saying that if structured and presented properly, young children can learn even about very complex subjects. Spiral education is built around three main concepts.

Over the course of their academic careers, students come back to the same subject repeatedly. Every time students revisit the topic, this helps to reinforce what they have learned.
Every time a student comes back to a subject, its complexity rises. This enables the child’s cognitive ability to advance through the material as they grow older.
When a student revisits a subject, fresh concepts are connected to previously learned ones. Due to their familiarity with the terms and concepts, the students are better able to understand the more challenging aspects of the subject.

The Three Modes of Representation by Bruner (1966)

Bruner introduced the concept of three forms of representation as an extension of the spiral curriculum. These representational techniques describe how information is kept in memory. Bruner’s modes, in contrast to Piaget’s age-related stages, are not strictly sequential.

Active (0–1 years old). knowledge representation by means of motion.
Iconic (0–6 years old). Knowledge held in images is represented visually.

symbolic (7 years and older). the expression of experiences through language and symbols.
Maslow’s Theory of Motivation

According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, pupils advance through a series of sequential demands, starting with physiological needs and ending with self-actualization. They get more at ease in their learning environment as they go through the levels and gain the confidence to work harder.

The learners in any group of students may be at various levels, and some may not have the needs of the lower levels satisfied at home, therefore it is crucial to ensure that these kids feel comfortable and secure because it will be extremely difficult for them to advance to the higher levels.

Maslow’s idea is better suited to creating strong student-teacher bonds than to lesson or curriculum planning. Even with the best materials and meticulously designed classes, it will be very challenging for your pupils to feel as though their needs have been satisfied if you don’t demonstrate excitement, passion, and empathy.

Multiple intelligences according to Howard Gardner

Professor of cognition and education at the Harvard Graduate School of Education at Harvard University, Howard Gardner is a developmental psychologist from the United States. He received instruction from Jerome Bruner (above) and Erik Ericson (below).

He published “Frames of Mind” in 1983, outlining his “multiple intelligences” idea in it.

According to Gardner, intelligence is the capacity to find solutions to issues or produce goods that are beneficial in one or more cultural contexts.

He created a list of standards by which he would evaluate potential candidates for the title of “intelligence.” Candidates have to meet a variety of the requirements on his list and be capable of handling real-world challenges. Gardner initially identified seven intelligences.

7 Intelligences of Gardner
Language proficiency. the capacity to acquire and express oneself through spoken and written language.
mathematical prowess. the capacity to undertake scientific research and answer logical, mathematical, and scientific puzzles.

musical knowledge. having proficiency in tone, pitch, and rhythm recognition as well as appreciation, composition, and performance of musical patterns.
body-kinesthetic awareness. Using mental processes to direct physical actions to address difficulties.

spatial awareness. being able to spot patterns and make use of them in a large or small area.
interpersonal ability. the ability to comprehend another person’s goals, motives, and intentions.
a person’s internal intelligence. being able to comprehend your own fears, emotions, and motivations.

Multiple intelligences and their importance in the classroom
According to Gardner, the different intelligences frequently work in concert to help pupils learn new skills and solve issues. He said that the intelligences are amoral, which means they might be applied either to beneficial or harmful ends.

While Gardner’s theory hasn’t received much support from psychologists, it has received a lot of support from the education community, particularly in the US.

In response to criticism that it is difficult to teach material within the parameters of a particular intelligence, Gardner claimed that the seven intelligences provide seven different ways to teach a subject, allowing for the use of various strategies and enabling all students to advance.

According to Gardner, all seven intelligences are necessary for successful life-management, and educational systems should focus on all seven rather than just the first two, which are more intellectual.

Intelligent Naturalist
Since the book’s initial release, Gardner has added the eighth intelligence, known as naturalist intelligence. This relates to a person’s capacity to observe, identify, and organize features in their surroundings.
8 Stages of Psychological Development According to Erikson

Erik Erikson, a stage theorist, transformed Freud’s “Psychosexual Theory” into a psychosocial theory with eight stages that incorporates both psychological and social factors.

We go through eight stages of growth during the course of our lives, according to Erikson. Each stage contains a conundrum that we must answer in order to feel competent and progress toward being a well-adjusted adult.

The 8 Stages of Erikson

Erik Erikson, a stage theorist, transformed Freud’s “Psychosexual Theory” into a psychosocial theory with eight stages that incorporates both psychological and social factors.

We go through eight stages of growth during the course of our lives, according to Erikson. Each stage contains a conundrum that we must answer in order to feel competent and progress toward being a well-adjusted adult.

The 8 Stages of Erikson

Age 0–1.5: Trust vs. Mistrust. Infants must learn that adults may be trusted at this initial stage. Children who get inadequate treatment may develop a mistrust of people as they age.
Shame vs. Autonomy (Age 1.5–3). During the “me do it” stage, kids begin to take initiative and express preferences for things in their environment, like what to wear or what toy they like best. Children may experience low self-esteem and shame if they are not permitted to explore these interests.

Ages 3 to 5: Initiative vs. Guilt. Children must learn to set and accomplish goals that involve others throughout this time. Children will acquire a feeling of purpose and strong self-confidence if parents or teachers let them explore this and support their decisions.
Ages 5 to 12: Industry vs. Inferiority. Children begin comparing themselves to their peers at this age. A sense of accomplishment in their academic work, social and family activities, and athletic endeavors will result from success in this.

Confusion over identity vs. role (12–18 years old). At this stage, students are considering such questions as “Who am I?” and “What do I want to do with my life?” During this time, they will test out various roles to see which one “fits” them the best. At this point, success would be defined as having a solid sense of self and the capacity to stand up for one’s fundamental convictions in the face of disagreement.
Ages 18 to 40: Isolation vs. Intimacy. As students enter their early adult years, their attention shifts to developing and upholding solid, close relationships with others.

Ages 40 to 65: Generativity vs. Stagnation. People in their middle years of life are worried about making a contribution to society, either through their employment or their parenting. Here, self-improvement in service of others plays a significant role.
(Age 65+) Ego Integrity vs. Despair. People who are in their late 20s and 30s look back on their lives and feel either satisfied or unsuccessful. People who experience failure frequently become fixated on thoughts of what they “should have” or “could have” accomplished.

Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development and Education
Erikson’s work provides us as teachers with a foundation to base our instruction on within an educational context. Planning is made easier when we are aware of the questions our children are asking about the world and about themselves.

There are issues when we have students in our class who are at different developmental stages; in this situation, we must carefully distinguish our methodology to enable helpful learning for all students.

Experiential Theory of Kolb
Experiential Learning Cycle by KolbIn 1984, American educator David Kolb put forth his four-stage experiential learning paradigm. Its foundation is the idea that learning is the acquisition of abstract concepts that may then be used in a variety of contexts.

“Learning is the process whereby experience is transformed into knowledge to produce knowledge”

D. A. Kolb (1984). Experience as the source of learning and development: Experiential learning (Vol. 1). Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.
The cycle’s stages work together to assist and guide the subsequent stage. All four phases must be finished for learning to take place, however a learner can repeat the cycle several times to better hone their comprehension of the subject.

Each stage must be used in conjunction with the others to be an effective learning approach; for instance, if the reflective observation stage is ignored, the learner may keep making the same errors.
Petticoat Principle
American educational theorist Laurence Peter created the Peter Principle, which is described in the book “The Peter Principle” that Peter co-wrote with his colleague Raymond Hull.

The book gained popularity because it actually had a point, despite the fact that it was originally intended to be sarcastic about how people are promoted in companies.

Although not a true learning theory, it does have some applications in the classroom. The four levels of competence are covered by the Peter Principal. They could provide a framework for a teacher creating a long-term teaching strategy.

Incompetence without awareness. not knowing how to perform a task while being aware of your ignorance.
a conscious lack of ability. Although you still don’t know how to complete the task, you now recognize your ignorance. You are conscious of a knowledge gap.
competent awareness. You can now complete the task, but it demands intense focus.

Unconscious ability. The work is simple for you to complete. Repeated practice is necessary to attain this.

You can probably see how this relates to a student’s educational career.

Sensory Theory of Laird
In his book Approaches to Training and Development from 1985, Dugan Laird wrote that learning happens when the senses are activated.

He cited data that showed adults learn 75% of their information from observation. Hearing accounted for 13% of learning, with the remaining 12% coming from a combination of touch, smell, and taste.

According to this research, giving students visual suggestions will improve their learning. Making your courses a multi-sensory experience, however, will improve learning even more. When preparing your lessons, it is important to keep this in mind.

According to Thorndike’s “Law of Effect” (1898), acts that are followed by positive responses are more likely to be repeated, while behaviors that are followed by negative responses are less likely to be repeated. This is the foundation of Skinner’s Behaviorist Theory of operant conditioning.

By incorporating “reinforcement” into the descriptions, Skinner improved the Law of Effect. By applying Skinner’s new definition, we arrive at the conclusion that reinforced behaviors repeat themselves (are strengthened), while unreinforced actions tend to fade away (are weakened).

Positive Discipline
From the standpoint of classroom management, positive reinforcement is a crucial tactic for instructing pupils on how to behave.

It is important to give praise and positive reinforcement for desired behaviors, such responding questions in class verbally. This should be done initially for all responses given, regardless of whether they are accurate. This will promote a culture of question-answering.

The teacher should then both decrease the frequency of the reward and, as in our example above, only offer it for right replies as the desired behavior becomes routine.

The frequency of the positive reinforcement will eventually be reduced by the teacher to only the best responses. The pupils will develop a culture of aspired excellence as a result.
Humanist Theory of Rogers

Facilitative learning is a humanistic method of teaching that was created in the 1980s by American psychologist Carl Rogers.

Cognitivism and behaviorism were pitted against each other to create humanism. Maslow (see above) and Rogers (see below) both founded their work on humanism. The following are some of the main humanist viewpoints:

In order to achieve self-actualization, people naturally want to learn (see Maslow’s theory above).
The learning process itself is the most significant aspect of education, not the final product.
Learning should be guided by the pupils themselves and accomplished via observation and exploration.

The instructor should encourage and support pupils on their individual journeys by serving as a positive role model.
Facilitative Education
According to Rogers, a teacher should be more than just a conduit for information. The success of the instructor depends on their capacity to establish trusting bonds with the students.

For facilitative learning to be successful, Roger said that a teacher should have the following three attitudinal fundamental qualities:

Realness. When teaching, the instructor should be themselves and show their unique personalities. An atmosphere of trust between pupils and a teacher is fostered by being “real” with them. Instead of merely being a monotonous, colorless robot, the teacher should be able to communicate their emotions.
valuing, accepting, and having faith. Regardless of whether a student’s emotions promote or hinder learning, a teacher should care about them and accept them. Deeper respect and trust are developed through these qualities.
Empathy. recognizing how the learner feels and how they view the learning process.

Additionally, there are some characteristics that students must possess in order for facilitative learning to be effective. They need to be driven, aware of the favorable conditions they have been given, and conscious of the value, relevance, and practical nature of the task they have been assigned.

In the words of Rogers himself, if all these traits are present:

“Learning transforms into life, and a very important life at that. The learner is progressing toward becoming a learning, evolving being, sometimes eagerly and sometimes unwillingly.

The Interpersonal Relationship in the Facilitation of Learning, Carl R. Ogers. The Person in the Process: Humanizing Education. T. Leeper, Ed. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, National Education Association, 1967, p. 1–18.
Canter’s Assertive Discipline Theory
A well-organized method called assertive discipline helps teachers run their classes. Instead of using a dictatorial approach, it focuses on the teacher creating a positive behavior control method.

According to Canter, a teacher has the authority to determine what is best for their students and that no student should obstruct another’s ability to study.

The instructor should set very clear expectations for how the students should act and behave. The kids should be aware of these expectations, and the teacher should take strong action in response to any disobedience.

All of this seems very draconian, am I right?

However, if the teacher issues a firm, clear directive and it is followed, positive reinforcement should come next (see Skinner above). Any deviation from the lesson plan should have negative outcomes that the students are aware of in advance.

The assertive teaching paradigm, which I know from personal experience works tremendously effectively, is the foundation on which the behavior management master Bill Rogers rests his methods.
techniques for using aggressive discipline. Make the regulations very clear; avoid being vague. Reward outstanding conduct. Be mindful of the effects of negative behavior. When praising students, be specific.
The classroom management theory of Dreikur
According to Rudolf Dreikur’s philosophy, respect for one another should serve as the cornerstone of discipline since it inspires students to act appropriately.

He thought that pupils naturally want to feel like they belong in a group and have something valuable and capable to offer that group.

referred to as the “genuine goal of social behavior” this desire to belong.

Students begin a sequence of “goals of misbehavior” if they are unsuccessful in achieving this goal. The misbehavior that follows is an unsuccessful attempt to give them the sense of community that is missing.

The four misbehavior goals of Dreikur
attract focus.
Amass authority and control.
avenge yourself.
Show signs of incompetence.

Failure at each subsequent level ultimately results in feelings of inadequacy for students who want to attain social status by attracting attention but fail.

How to Stop Misbehavior’s Four Goals.
Attract interest. Negative reinforcement should be used when positive behavior is displayed; ignore the attention-seeking. By providing the kid with alternative options or behaviors, such as “Please hand out the books,” you can divert their attention.

Gain control and power. Never engage in a power struggle; instead, focus on all the wonderful behavior in the class while disregarding any attempts to acquire control. This strategy is known as the “black dot, white square approach” by behavior expert Bill Rogers.

Occupy revenge. Remember that the student is seeking a sense of belonging, and this disguised act of seeking revenge is an attempt to do so. Tell the student you care about them and their education, that you want the best for them despite their actions, and do so away from other pupils.

Show signs of inadequacy. The pupil has given up on themself at this point. This stage will be characterized by “not doing” (i.e., not participating, completing assignments, etc.). At this point, students should be taught how to acknowledge their minor accomplishments. A pupil can always be helped to gradually emerge from this stage by demonstrating interest in them and their work.

The foundation of behaviorism is the notion that knowledge is external to the learner and independent of them. A behaviorist views the learner as a blank slate who needs to be given the material to be learned.

Learning happens as a result of these interactions because new associations are formed. When the presented stimulus modifies behavior, learning has occurred. The work of Pavlov is an illustration of this that is not instructional.

In his well-known “salivating dog” experiment, Pavlov demonstrated that a stimulus—in this case, striking a bell each time he fed the dog—would eventually lead the creature to begin salivating.

The dog learned that hearing the bell ring was a sign that it would soon be fed, therefore whenever the bell was struck, it caused the dog to begin salivating.

My strategy for managing the classroom is comparable to that.

I modify my nonverbal cues.

I’ve explained to my students that if I stand in a particular spot in the classroom with my arms crossed, they will know that I am getting impatient with the level of noise and will begin to quiet down. Likewise, if I sit cross-legged at my desk, they will know that I am about to say something significant and encouraging, and they should pay attention because it directly affects them.

Verbal reinforcement, repeated behavior, and participation incentives are all part of behaviorism. Establishing guidelines is an excellent idea, especially for behavior management.
Behavior Issues Elementary School Students Frequently Face
when they shouldn’t be talking.

outbursts of anger.
absence of work.
taking things without being allowed to.
calling out solutions.

Common issues with behavior among high school students
The majority of the above elementary school misbehaviors also apply to high school kids, I discovered while examining the typical high school student mistakes.

The following inappropriate behaviors are more common in high schools, however they might be less noticeable in elementary schools.

being late for class.
use of a cell/mobile phone.
Not enough homework.
inadequate homework.
Social chit-chat.

How to Deal with Rude Students
When I first started writing this post, I had every intention of addressing each of these inappropriate acts, but then I started to consider how I deal with unruly children.

Since we don’t teach one-on-one, I quickly came to the conclusion that we need to focus on ourselves and our management of the entire class at the same time as the student or students who are causing the problem. This realization came to me as I was researching how other teachers handle specific situations.

His strategy for controlling behavior in the classroom is outlined in the series’ titles.

Positive Correction: This section is based on the notion that developing excellent relationships between teachers and students is the foundation for good behavior. I place a lot of emphasis on this in my classroom. It is the knowledge that screaming and shouting at a learner will simply encourage that kid to repeat the same behavior (monkey see, monkey do). The pupils will react similarly if you behave in a courteous and supportive manner.

Prevention: This section depends on establishing the class’s expected behavior. Students will be able to refer back to what is expected of them in your class if they are aware of it from the beginning. At the start of the year, I have them all write down my straightforward 4 rules and ask them to refer to them if necessary during a conflict.
Consequences: This builds on the previous concept because the pupils already understand what is expected of them and what would happen if they don’t meet those expectations. Students are able to make wise choices regarding their behavior because to this clear structure.

Prevention: This section depends on establishing the class’s expected behavior. Students will be able to refer back to what is expected of them in your class if they are aware of it from the beginning. At the start of the year, I have them all write down my straightforward 4 rules and ask them to refer to them if necessary during a conflict.
Consequences: This builds on the previous concept because the pupils already understand what is expected of them and what would happen if they don’t meet those expectations. Students are able to make wise choices regarding their behavior because to this clear structure.

Repair and Rebuild: If you think there won’t be problems or conduct that deviates from the guidelines you have established, you’re deluding yourself. I believe that what we do and how we handle the fallout is what matters most. This needs to be done under the assumption that we wish to keep interacting with that student. Even after a behavior lapse, we want them to believe that we are still on their side.

my pedagogical values
Instructor Style
Here, the goal is to develop into a confident instructor.

It involves striking a delicate balance between being an unsure instructor and an authoritarian one.

I’m sure you can think of other teachers who fit both of the latter categories.

When I first started teaching, I disregarded advice and tried to run the classroom like an autocrat. This didn’t work, and I eventually had to switch schools since it had harmed my relationships with the staff and kids.

A teacher who lacks self-control lets the class dictate how they behave; they don’t set boundaries out of concern for their reputation or for the possibility of “losing” the class. They merely hope that the class behaves.
A dictatorial teacher imposes strict regulations. Without meriting it, they demand respect. Their rules are rigid and unforgiving. They typically roar out of control and come off as bullies.

Your peak is being an authoritative teacher; it takes practice to get there, but it’s the only way to instruct well. Since I work at it every day, I’d say I’m 90% there. The better I am, the more smoothly my classes go. A strong teacher doesn’t rely on force or hope to enforce good behavior. They establish clear limits, make plans for good behavior, and adjust to whatever circumstances that arise.
Positive Phrases
Although it is a straightforward, user-friendly, and elegant behavior, it is effective right away.

When we were children, our parents instilled in us the importance of using the words “please” and “thank you” as well as being polite to others.

Telling a student to quit doing something is preferable to telling them what they should start doing and always ending on a positive note.

For instance, instead of asking two students to stop talking to one other and getting off subject, I can say, “I’d like everyone to be listening, including you, Paul and Daisy…”Thank you,” then go on.

By thanking the pupils, you are assuming that they have already complied, which will result in their true compliance.

choice of course
I’ve just been employing this strategy for a few years, but I wish I had done it earlier.

Once more, it’s a straightforward modification to how I handle a problem rather than a lesson for my pupils.

I gently present them with an option rather than just a demand.

The first choice is what I want them to do, and the second is the result.

They will almost always select your recommended solution.

For instance, “Daisy, you can either stop chatting to your friends OR you will go to the heads office,” or “Paul, you can either finish the work you are supposed to be doing OR you can come back at lunchtime to do it.”
Another really easy technique for mastering classroom presence.

Students will likely have a lot going on in their minds, just like us, and they will also require some processing time.

The likelihood that they will understand what you are saying as soon as you speak is really slim.

The method of this work is:

Establish eye contact Paul…pause…
Give instructions by saying “Please turn to face me and listen.”

This is one of Bill’s books, and I’ve personally used it. It’s excellent!
Partial Understanding

The idea of modeling the behavior you want to see is strengthened by this.

This approach has also been referred to as “being the adult” in some circles.

Sadly, some teachers don’t seem to be able to do this.

They merely believe that they cannot be perceived to budge and would debate to the bitter end to be heard.

Given that it permits some give, this tactic quickly ends dispute.

Additionally, it promotes respect among classmates.

Managed Severity
Unfortunately, there will be occasions when you must use a louder voice, but we can change the way we go about doing this.

Even though you may feel in charge of the class at this point, it is easy to allow your anger take over in the heat of the moment and cause you to raise your voice.

Excellent teachers will have established very clear rules and will only ever utilize a controlled, severe “act” to justify raising their voices.

All that is required to inform them that their acts do not conform to anticipated behavior is a brief, crisp, stronger tone.

You should immediately regain your calm, natural voice.

celsus adah

Hey! am apostle celsus Adah am a blogger, i have passion for education my favorite subject is computer science because i see computer as the science an oracle of all learning. Because of the passion for technology after my SSCE which i was register on scholarship by sen. prof. Ben Ayade in 2014, i further to a level of where i got my diploma in cornerstone computer institute where i was sponsored under scholarship by a philanthropist chief Ukandi Emmanuel Inakefe. After which i further to be a certified graphics designer and web developer in s-techmax computer institute obudu. I love education so i blog about education in an advance level because education is power and the backbone of every nation to acquire a standard level of learning .

Related Articles

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Back to top button
Verified by MonsterInsights